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Author Topic: [Biology II] Classification Of Animal And Organisation Of Life  (Read 633 times)

Offline Mr. Babatunde

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2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF ANIMAL

   Animal is classified into (i) invertebrate (ii) Vertebrate Animal

2.1.1 INVERTEBRATE ANIMAL

   These are animal without backbone. They can be represented by a formula named "PCPNAMAE"

   P == Protozoa
   C == Coelenterata
   P == Platyhelminthes
   N == Nematoda
   A == Annelida
   M == Mollusca
   A == Anthropoda
   E == Echinodamata

   (A) PROTOZOA: They are tiny organism that live in water e.g "Amoeba, Paramecium, Plasmolium"

   Features/Characteristics

   i. They reproduce asexually by binary fission.
   ii. They have eucayotic cell.
   iii. They are aquantic animals.
   iv. They are microscopic organism.

   (B) COELENTERATA: They are aquantic animal which is more complex than protozoa e.g "Hydia sea, Jelly fish"

   Features/Characteristics

   i. They are multicellular animal.
   ii. They have two body layers.
   iii. They are radially symmetrical.
   iv. They are diploblastic animal.

   (C) PLATYHELMINNTHES: They are refers to as flat wroms e.g "Tape worm, Liver fluke, Blood tape"

   Features/Characteristics

   i. They are bilaterally symmetrical.
   ii. They have three body layers.
   iii. They are mainly parasitic
   iv. They are multicellular organisms.

   (D) NEMATODA: They are known as round worms because they have cylindrical bodies e.g "hook worms"

   Features/Characteristics

   i. They have three body layer.
   ii. They are bilaterally symmetrical.
   iii. They have round and cylindrical body.
   iv. They have false body cavity

   (E) ANNELIDA: They are segmented worms with long cylindrical bodies e.g "tube worm, earth worm"

   Features/Characteristics

   i. They have three body layer.
   ii. They are bilaterally symmetrical.
   iii. They have two opening mouth and anus.
   iv. They have long cylindrical body.

   (F) MOLLUSCA: They are marine animal, They live in aquantic & some on land. e.g "snail, Octopus"

   Features/Characteristics

   i. They are tripoblastic animal.
   ii. They have soft unsegmented body.
   iii. Some are aquantic, while some are terrestial.
   iv. Some have shell, while some dont have shell.

   (G) ANTHROPODA: This is the largest phylum in the animal kingdom it is divided into it class.
      (i) Crutacea e.g "Crab, prawns, Lobster "
      (ii) Insecta e.g "Cockroach, Housefly, Termites"
      (iii) Arachinida e.g "Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks"
      (iv) Myriapoda e.g "Centipede , Millipedes"

   Features/Characteristics

   i. They have segmented body.
   ii. They have three body layer.
   iii. Their body are bilaterally symmetrically
   iv. Some are aquatic, while other are terrestrial

   (H) ECHINODAMATA: They are skinned animal e.g "Starfish , Sea cycumber"

   Features/Characteristics

   i. They are radially symmetrical.
   ii. They are mainly marine animal.
   iii. They have neither head nor brain.
   iv. The bodies not segmented.



2.1.1 VERTEBRATE ANIMAL

   These are animal with backbone, Vertebrate is a sub-phylum of the phylum "Chordata".

   General features of Vertebrate Animal

   * They have 2 pair limbs
   * They have well developed sense organ
   * They have 3 body layer
   * They have efficient exectory organ such as kidney
   * They have bilaterally symentrical bodies.

   Vertebrate animal is divided into 5 classes which can be represented with a formular
   "PARAM"

   P == Pices
   A == Amphibian
   R == Reptilia
   A == Aves
   M == Mammalia

   (A) PICES: These are the fishes which are all aquantic. e.g: Shark, Rays, Tilapia. They are sub-divided into two groups bases on the nature of their skeletal system.

   Features/Characteristics

   (i) They have gills which are used for gaseos exchange
   (ii) They have fins for movement in water
   (iii) They have two chambered heart
   (iv) They are oviparous animal
   (v) The skin are covered with scales but few are without scale

   (B) AMPHIBIAN: They are the first vertebrate to venture out of the water and hire on land. Most of them live in moist environment and return to water. e.g Frogs, Toad

   Features/Characteristics

   (i) They are cold blooded animal (Poikilothermic)
   (ii) They have 3 chambered heart
   (iii) They do not show parental care
   (iv) They live both in water and land
   (v) They have poisonous gland

   (C) REPTILIA: They are first group of vertebrate to have become completely adapted to live on land. e.g: Snake, Lizard, Tortoise.

   Features/Characteristics

   (i) They are poikilothermic animal
   (ii) They have lungs for gaseous exchange
   (iii) They have 2 pair of limbs except snake
   (iv) They have dry skin covered with scale
   (v) Some are aquantic, while other are terrestial

   (D) AVES: This class includes all type of birds both flythless and flying birds. e.g: Domestic fowl, Sparrow, Pigeon

   Features/Characteristics

   (i) They have 2 pair of limbs
   (ii) They have lungs for gaseous exchange
   (iii) They have beak for feeding
   (iv) They show parental care to their young ones
   (v) They are warm blooded animal (homothermic)

   (E) MAMMALIA: It belong to the group which is the most advance animal in most mammals. e.g: Gorrila, Lion. They are subdivided into 14 orders. Some are egg laying mammals, while other lack plancental and keep their young ones in pouch. e.g: kangaro.

   Features/Characteristics

   (i) They are viviparous animal
   (ii) Their skin contains gland, sweat gland, sebacious gland.
   (iii) They have 3 body layer
   (iv) They have fore-limbs and hind-limbs
   (v) They have well developed brain



2.2 ORGANISATION OF LIFE

   LIFE: is highly organised and this organisation occurs in steps or levels. The simplest one interact to build up the complex one and so on.

2.3 LEVEL OF ORGANISATION

   CELL

   * The cell is the smallest baisc unit of life
   * All plant and animals are made up of cell
   * Organism which exist at cell level include: Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena
   * Cells in plant are Phloem cell, Xylem cell
   * Cells in animal are White blood cell, Red blood cell

   TISSUE

   * This is the second level of organisation of life, similar cell aggregate together to perform specific function. The aggregation of similar cells performing a specific function is called Tissue. Organism which exist at tissue include: Hydra, Fungi, Algae
   * Tissue in plants are Epidermal tissue, Collendryme tissue
   * Tissue in animal are Bone, Catillage, Blood

   ORGAN

   * This is the thrid level of organisation of life, Organ are formed while similar tissue aggregate together to perform a specific function
   * Organ in plant are Root, stem, leaves, flower
   * Organ in animals are Heart, liver, eye, lung, skin

   SYSTEM

   * This is the forth and last level or organisation of life, system are formed when similar organ aggregate together to perform a specific function.
   * System in plants are Root system and shoot system
   * System in animals are Digestive, exectory, respiratory, reproduction.

   
REVISION EXERCISE


   [1] Animal is classified into how many?
   [2] List the classification of animals
   [3] What are poikilothermic animal
   [4] What are homothermic animal
   [5] What is vertebrate and invertebrate animal
   [6] Differentiate btw vertebral & invertebral animals
   [7] What is Cell, tissue, organ, system
   [8] Give a well label diagram of amoeba
   [9] Toads frog belong to what phylum
   [10] What are viviparous and oviparous animal

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