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[Biology 8] SOCIAL ANIMALS (BEES AND TERMITES)

   These are the animals that lives co-operately in an organized manner in a community or colonies. COLONY is a group of organism of the same species living together in a cooperative manner e.g (Gorilla, bees, termite). SOCIAL INSECT are insect of specialized group living together in a colony e.g (bees, termite, ants).

8.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL INSECT

⇒ They have high division of labor
⇒ They show distinct caste
⇒ They communicate with one another
⇒ They live in colony

8.2 BEES

   The bees undergo complete metamorphosis. There are 3 major caste
   i. The Drone (Male)
   ii. The Queen (Egg laying female)
   iii. The Workers (Sterile female)

8.2.i CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DRONE (KING)

⇒ They have wings
⇒ They have no stings and do not work
⇒ They are bigger than worker
FUNCTION: They mate, fertilized with the queen

8.2.ii CHARACTERISTICS OF THE QUEEN

⇒ They feed on royal jelly
⇒ They have wings
⇒ They are bigger than worker
FUNCTION: They helps in laying eggs

8.2.iii CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORKER

⇒ They are smaller than drone and queen
⇒ They are sterile female
⇒ They possess eyes and sting
⇒ They feed queen and king
⇒ Their mouth path and legs are for collecting nectal & pollen
FUNCTION:
   I. They clean the cell
   II. They collect nectal and pollen
   III. They defend their colony
   IV. They build nest

bees

8.3 HOW THE BEES COMMUNICATE WITH ANOTHER

   The bees  communicate with one another through touch, smell and grooming in a process called DANCE. In a colony there is a particular scent that is associated with that colony. Each bees lick one another in other to perceive the scent and this will enable them to know when the intruders are present. This is because the intruders posses a scent different from the scent present in the colony. The intruders are either chased or killed.

8.4 TERMITES

   The place where termite lives are (Ant hills and dead wood). There are 3 castes in termite which are
   i. Reproductive
   ii. Soldiers
   iii. Workers

termite

8.4.i REPRODUCTIVE : These are divided into 3 which are (King, Queen, Winged reproductive)

   CHARACTERISTICS OF KING

   ⇒ It has no wing
   ⇒ It is smaller than the queen
   ⇒ It has shorter abdomen
   FUNCTION: It fertilized the queen

   CHARACTERISTICS OF QUEEN

   ⇒ It has small head and thorax
   ⇒ It has swollen abdomen with fertilized egg
   ⇒ It is the female reproductive individual
   FUNCTION: They layed eggs

   CHARACTERISTICS OF WINGED REPRODUCTIVE

   ⇒ They are fertile
   ⇒ They posses wing
   ⇒ They can reproduced
   FUNCTION: They ensured formation of a new colony

8.4.ii SOLDIER: There are two types of soldier in termite (Mandibulated and Nasute soldier)

   Mandibulated soldier: have a powerful mandible for attacking their enemies while,
   Nasute soldier: has a poison fang for attacking their enemies

   CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOLDIER

   ⇒ They are Wingless
   ⇒ They are sterile
   ⇒ They are blind
   FUNCTION: They defend their colony against intruders

8.4.iii WORKERS

   CHARACTERISTICS OF WORKERS

   ⇒ They are wingless
   ⇒ They are bling
   ⇒ They are sterile
   ⇒ They form in colony
   FUNCTION: They provide food, They clean the colony

8.5 IMPORTANCE OF TERMITES

   ⇒ Source of protein
   ⇒ They add humus to soil
   ⇒ They cause destruction

termitess

REVISION EXERCISE


[1] What is Social animal
[2] What is colony
[3] What is social insect
[4] List the characteristics of social insect
[5] List the 3 major of the bees
[6] List the characteristics of The drone
[7] List the characteristics of The queen
[8] List the characteristics of The workers
[9] List the functions of The drone
[10] List the functions of The queen
[11] List the functions of The workers
[12] List the 3 castes in termites
[13] List the characteristics of The king in termites
[14] List the characteristics of The soldiers in termites
[15] List the functions of The soldiers & workers in termite
[16] Explain how bees communicates
[17] Differentiate btw Mandibulated and Nasute soldier
[18] Draw a well label diagram of termite (king and queen)
[19] What are importance of termites
[20] List the characteristics of The workers in termites



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